What Makes the Horseshoe Golden? Why Greater Toronto Outperforms Central & Western NYS

Separate by water and an international border, Canada’s Golden Horseshoe region has been growing steadily for decades while Upstate New York languishes. What explains this stark difference in economic outcomes? Although many less measurable factors are surely at play here, the Golden Horseshoe’s formula combines an attractive immigration policy coupled with a favorable tax climate. CGR identifies the key differences in policy that appear to be influencing the difference in prosperity between the two regions.

Report Date: Feb 2013
Author(s): Kent Gardner
Subject(s): Economic Analysis
Location: Monroe, New York

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